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Within this sample of places the agreement of the four critical texts is exhibited in the following table. For each pairing, the number of agreements is given over the number of places in which either text differs from the TR.

The "Majority Text" of Hodges and Farstad represents the large majority of medieval manuscripts, and it corresponds much more closely to Scrivener's TR than any of the critical texts. I found that the total number of translatable differences of that text from Scrivener's TR is These differences fall outside the sample of places used in the statistical comparisons above.

But in places it agrees with one or more of the critical editors. From these findings it may be seen that where the critical texts diverge from the sixteenth-century Textus Receptusthey largely agree with one another. The Westcott-Hort text departs furthest from the TR. The Nestle textthough it largely corresponds with the Westcott-Hort text, differs from it in places. The body of data used for this study is given in the collation of critical editions on this site.

These "translatable differences" include even the most trivial differences, many of which would show up only in an extremely literal translation. In fact most of the differences are of this nature.

The differences do not include the longer sections, Mark and Johnwhich all the editors regard as secondary, and they do not include other verses that are doubly bracketed in the text of Westcott-Hort or Nestle-Aland.

Looked at from another point of view, Scrivener has as many "additions" to the critical texts. Nothing is here implied concerning the original text. The number of translatable disagreements between the texts can be obtained by subtracting the first number from the second number in each pairing. The numbers given here--it must be borne in mind--have to do with Scrivenerwhich represents only the readings adopted by the translators of the KJV.Difference between Romans and Greeks is not hard to understand.

They were both parts of important civilizations. These civilizations have shared much as the architecture and beliefs as they both existed during the same time and closer to one another. For example, think about the Roman and Greek mythologies about gods. Since Greeks were the first ones, Romans followed them. For example, Ares is the Greek God of war.

The Romans accept Mars as the God of war. Romans acknowledge Mars as God of fertility too. According to the Greeks, Ares is a very strong and terrifying God due to the fact he is the real God of War Incarnate. Romans lived in the Roman Empire since as early as 8th century BC.

When it comes to art, Romans sought perfect likeness in their art work to real people.

difference between greek and greek polytonic

That means Roman sculpture has all the flaws of real people. Romans believed in the mythological figures. In fact, they would give different names for the mythological figures too.

Nature was more of a disposable resource for the Romans. Romans were opposed to portraying animal characters in their stories and legends. Romans appeared to be practical. They never seemed to appreciate nature. They were not inspired by the factor of beauty in nature. The Romans were known for their art of construction.

They were believed to be wonderful architects but were not good mathematicians. It is believed that Greek culture was older than the Roman culture.

difference between greek and greek polytonic

When it comes to art, Greek sculptors depicted the beauty in their work and perfectness. They portrayed perfect people. Greeks believed in the mythological figures. The Greeks were more concerned about nature.

They found nature inspiring. Greek philosophers and thinkers tried to understand the nature better. This was because they appreciated it. The Greek stories and legends portrayed animal characters too.

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The Greeks were good mathematicians. They were good architects too as they too have built some marvelous structures. Roman civilization is believed to have started as early as 8th century BC. The influence of Greek architecture on Roman architecture suggests that Greeks were there first.Greek is a language that is widely spoken in Greece.

An ancient language, Greek has undergone many transformations. Moreover, Greek is considered a classical language.

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Greek belongs to the Indo-European language family. Modern Greek is also known as Romaic or Neo-Hellenic. It was after the decline of Byzantine Empire in that Modern Greek got popularized. Though it is said so, the traces of modern features in the language could be seen even from third century.

Modern Greek is basically based on Demotic. Ancient Greek was a language that was in vogue during the Archaic, classic and the Hellenistic periods. It can be said that ancient Greek can be traced to the second century BC. Ancient Greek was the classical language of the Athenians. The Ancient Greek had a rich vowel system.

On the other hand, Modern Greek has only a simple system consisting of five vowels. In ancient Greek, there was a clear length distinction in vowels and consonants. On the other hand, Modern Greek has not conserved this.

In Modern Greek, it has given up the optative mood, dative class, dual number and infinitive that were prevalent in ancient Greek.

When compared to Ancient Greek, the modern version has adopted gerund.

Difference Between Romans and Greeks

Unlike the Ancient Greek, the Modern Greek had accepted the future and the conditional tenses. In Modern Greek, the auxiliary verb was also newly introduced. Cite Prabhat S. December 27, This is an obvious problem unless we are willing to forget Plato and Socrates ever existed! Name required. Email required.

Please note: comment moderation is enabled and may delay your comment. There is no need to resubmit your comment.Here are instructions for typing in Unicode Polytonic Greek. This will enable you to create Greek documents, web sites, and emails which most current browsers will display properly. It also will allow you to change Unicode fonts without any confusion of characters. All operating systems are not created equal.

Mac operating systems allow for multiple dead key combinations select breathing, select accent, select subscript and then finally select a letter and Windows systems only allow for a single dead key. The result is that windows has a key for each possible accent, breather and subscript combination.

The following is how to step up a Greek polytonic keyboard on each of these systems. After adding Greek to your operating system and installing the keyboard you are ready to start typing in Greek Polytonic Unicode.

difference between greek and greek polytonic

Note: Always make sure that your font is a font that supports polytonic Greek Unicode characters. If you are sending an email or publishing on the web, the most widely available polytonic Greek Unicode font is Palatino Linotype.

Hear a couple ways of typing in Greek polytonic Unicode. I have found that is the easiest system for typing all of the diacritical marks while typing Greek. It runs within your operating system so you can use in anywhere in your system in any program.

I explain the iota subscript combinations in the instruction document. I also have pictures of the keyboard layout there. I think this is the most effortless system for typing in Greek since you select the accenting at the same time as the vowel rather than before it. It also uses the Greek national keyboard layout for the location for all of the letters.

The only downside that in Microsoft Word there are a few shift states that Microsoft decided to use as hot-keys which should have been reserved for foreign language keyboards.

You can disable these in Word if the program attempts to do something other than type a character. If you find any of these to disable you can accent correctly in other applications like Facebook but not Wordplease let me know so I can add this list and instructions for Word to the instruction document.

Remember take a look at the instruction document for all of the details and pictures of how the keyboard works. There are a number of ways to type accents and breathers with the Mac keyboard. Some involve memorizing a long list of keys with all of the various accenting combinations like Windows symbols.

Comparing and Contrasting Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome

I prefer simply learning one key for each accent type and then typing any number of them before the letter that you wish to accent. Why not use the advantages of your Mac? Those four keys can be used in any combination to produce any combination of additional symbols on over your Greek characters. Remember to select your accents before your vowel.

There are download links for both PC and Mac in the right sidebar. It uses slashes for accents and shift states for breathing marks. Some of the consonant positions on the keyboard are more consistent with legacy fonts rather than the ethnic national Greek keyboard layout.

This is keyboard is awkward to use, but it works in most applications, especially Microsoft programs. Now you should be typing in Greek according to this keyboard map. The following is a list of key combinations to type in Unicode Greek using an English keyboard. It might differ between different keyboards.By Deborah K. Dietsch, Robert A.

For the Greeks, temples were not only places to worship the gods but also impressive symbols of their society and culture. They were built as focal points on the highest ground of every city in Greece and the conquered territories around the Mediterranean.

Beneath the temples spread public meeting places, civic buildings, gymnasiums, stadiums, theaters, and housing. Today, the remains of Greek cities can be found in Italy, Sicily, and Turkey. One of the reasons that they have lasted so long is that the Greeks built their temples, amphitheaters, and other major public buildings with limestone and marble. Blocks of stone were held in place by bronze or iron pins set into molten lead — a flexible system that could withstand earthquakes.

Greek architecture followed a highly structured system of proportions that relates individual architectural components to the whole building. This system was developed according to three styles, or orders. Each order consists of an upright support called a column that extends from a base at the bottom to a shaft in the middle and a capital at the top — much like the feet, body, and head of the human figure. The capital was often a stylized representation of natural forms, such as animal horns or plant leaves.

It, in turn, supports a horizontal element called the entablature, which is divided further into three different parts:. These elements, in turn, were further elaborated with decorative moldings and ornamentation see Figure 1.

Each component of a classical order was sized and arranged according to an overall proportioning system based on the height and diameter of the columns. The Greeks first constructed their orders with wood, and then switched to stone using the same forms.

The Greeks started out using only one order per building. But after a few hundred years, they got more creative and sometimes used one order for the exterior and another for the interior. The proportions of the orders were developed over a long period of time — they became lighter and more refined. Some folks think that the orders are primarily a question of details, moldings, and characteristic capitals.

However, in fact, the very concept of order and an overall relationship is really the most important thing here. Each of the orders is a proportional system or a range of proportions for the entire structure. The oldest, simplest, and most massive of the three Greek orders is the Doric, which was applied to temples beginning in the 7th century B. As shown in Figure 2, columns are placed close together and are often without bases.

Their shafts are sculpted with concave curves called flutes.

difference between greek and greek polytonic

The capitals are plain with a rounded section at the bottom, known as the echinus, and a square at the top, called the abacus. The entablature has a distinctive frieze decorated with vertical channels, or triglyphs.

In between the triglyphs are spaces, called metopes, which were commonly sculpted with figures and ornamentation. The frieze is separated from the architrave by a narrow band called the regula. Together, these elements formed a rectangular structure surrounded by a double row of columns that conveyed a bold unity.

The Doric order reached its pinnacle of perfection in the Parthenon. The next order to be developed by the Greeks was the Ionic see Figure 3. It is called Ionic because it developed in the Ionian islands in the 6th century B.

The Ionic was used for smaller buildings and interiors. The volutes may have been based on nautilus shells or animal horns. Between the volutes is a curved section that is often carved with oval decorations known as egg and dart.Post by Olga R. Flat Style by Ian Bradley. Privacy Terms. Quick links. Board index Textkit Community Open Board. Difference between Ancient and Modern Greek alphabets? Textkit is a learning community- introduce yourself here.

Use the Open Board to introduce yourself, chat about off-topic issues and get to know each other. Why are separate fonts required for Ancient and Modern Greek?

Are Ancient Greek texts only printed using capital letters? Is only Ancient Greek considered polytonic? What exactly does polytonic mean? Sorry for all the questions, Thanks in advance for your answer, -Jonathan. This makes modern Greek easier to typeset, because in polytonic 'many accent marks ' you might have a breathing, an accent and an iota subscript all hanging off the same letter.

This is tricky to set. Ancient Latin texts are usually typeset using modern fonts. Ancient Greek texts are also set with modern fonts.

Originally both only used what we'd consider upper case lettering, without word spacing or much punctuation. William S. Before an e or i a gamma sounds like a 'y' as in yes in modern but not in ancient, delta in ancient is 'd' whereas in modern it is 'th' as in 'then' ita in modern is like the 'i' in maria whereas in ancient it is like 'ai' as in 'air' iota in ancient is 'i' whereas in modern it is 'y' before a or o. Ao haveing said that there are actually quite a few differences.

I'm sorry if that isn't very clear, I can't figure out how to do greek alphabet on the computer. However there is no difference in the way you write the letters between ancient and modern.Both Norse mythology and Greek mythology are among the major mythologies in the world. Deities from the two mythologies even have important roles in Marvel films and TV series. The formation of the two mythologies is completely independent, but there are also some relation and differences between them.

The Norse mythology refers to the myths peculiar to the Scandinavia. It emerged later than the other mythologies, but its oral spreading can be dated back to the 1st century AD. During the middle age, Christianity prevailed throughout the Europe. As a result, Norse mythology was seen as heterodoxy and most relevant literary works were burnt. The only few work survived to this days are Icelandic epics Edda, Germanic epic Nibelungenlied and others. Greek mythology is the spiritual outcome of primitive clan society and the earliest literary form in Europe.

Greek mythology were created around 8th century BC, and took shape after drawing on mythologies from other countries and being orally spread by ancient Greek people. Later, people systematized them into the present Greek mythology, which falls into two categories: stories of deities and legend of heroes. Similar to Greeks, the Nordics believed there was only the gaping abyss of Ginnungagap before the creation of cosmos.

But in the view of Greeks, there was only dark and disordered Chaos without shape, light or color, where everything was mixed together. In contrast, all the elements of world were clearly separated in the Nordic version of creation myth. It was endless icebergs flowing from the holy spring Hvergelmir on one side; while it was Muspelheim, the home to Surtr; a dark, bottomless and boundless chasm existed in between.

Greeks believed there were people living a better life somewhere to the north of Greece, but Nordics never had such beautiful visions about Elysium. Their life was difficult and tough. They had to ceaselessly fight wind, snow and ice to survive, leading to their serious and realistic world view. Assiduous and realistic Nordics more often thought of themselves than of things which they had little to do with. Both Nordics and Greeks believed the earth was created first, after that the domelike sky fell on and covered it.

In addition, they both thought that the sun and moon cruising in the sky on glary carriages. However, the second-generation god of sun in Greek mythology is Helius; its equivalent in Nordic culture is goddess Sol; while the deity of moon in Norse mythology is the god Mani. Both Zeus and Odin are the father of all gods as well as the incarnation of universe in their respective mythology.

Odin sits on his throne Hlidskjalf and sees everything happening in the world, the same as Zeus who lives in the Temple of Olympus. The two weapons kill all, even giants and deities. Freyja and Aphrodite are the goddesses associated with love and beauty in their respective mythology. They were both born in the ocean and both like to give fresh flowers and fruits as gifts.